Zener ESP - J.B.Rhine and Louisa - Clairvoyance, Telepathy, Precognition, Simulcognition, Radiesthesia (Radioestesia), Psychometry and Retrocognition
While Louisa collected reports of spontaneous cases, Joseph worked extensively in the laboratory, carefully crafting terms like PES and PSI, and designing experiments to test them, as he believed that good grassroots work should be placed in the tightly controlled environment Of a laboratory, so that the scientific community could take Parapsychology seriously.
If the "null hypothesis" (that is, without psychic ability) is assumed and each card selected for the test is chosen in a truly random manner, the expected success rate of an experienced one reaches 20% (one success rate being 5 Trials) as their number of trials increases.
However, the more the scenario is observed from the expected, as in the case of this application, more reason to believe that the null hypothesis is not true - because the results are not simply due to chance.
In his research project, Rhine tested many students as volunteers. One of the first was Adam Linzmayer, an economics student, who in 1931 got a high score with the Zener Cards in the preliminaries, scoring 100% correct in two short tests of nine cards. In his first long test, consisting of a series of 300 cards, he scored a 39.6% accuracy, while the expected chance was only 20%, which usually marked 36% for each set of 25 cards. Over time, however, their results have declined, possibly due to distractions, boredom and competing obligations.
But it was in the following year that he ran his most famous series of experiments, with promising Hubert Pearce, who managed to overcome Linzmayer's overall performance with 40% correctness.
Between August 1933 and March 1934, a Rhine research assistant, Joseph Gaither Pratt, shuffled and recorded the order of the Zener Letters in the parapsychology laboratory, while Pearce sat in a cubicle of the campus library 100 yards away.
The results surpassed expectations, with good scores being obtained regardless of the distance between Pratt and Pearce, who reached up to 250 yards.
Several years of meticulous research and statistical analysis, coupled with the good results presented, prompted Rhine to publish his first book on extra-sensory perception and Parapsychology in 1934, entitled:
Extra-Sensory PerceptionTo investigate Psychokinesia, Rhine reduced the object of studies in simple terms, so that it could be tested under control in a laboratory environment. Always seeking impartiality and avoiding influence on the results, it evolved from the data that was sent by hand, to the plays of a glass and, finally, data released by machines.
In 1940, after a review of all his experimental studies on clairvoyance and telepathy, his works were recognized as the first meta-analysis in the history of science.
Gradually, to designate the phenomena he observed, he had to coined new terms, such as:
ParapsychologyTo denote supposed psychic abilities, such as telepathy and clairvoyance, and their trans-temporal functioning as precognition or retrocognition. Founding it as a branch of psychology, for the scientific investigation of paranormal psychic phenomena including ESP.
Psycho-Gamma (PG) in Parapsychology and commonly known as "Sixth Sense" is the supposed ability of certain individuals, called "sensitive" or "psychic", to perceive phenomena, Objects or information regardless of their sensory organs.
For purposes of study and research, PES has been subdivided into the following general categories:
- Clairvoyance - Knowledge of event, being or object, without the use of any known sensory channels;
- Telepathy - The awareness of the thoughts of another being, without the use of known sensorial channels;
- Precognition - Knowledge about a future event, being or object;
- Simulcognition - Knowledge of present reality;
- Radiesthesia or Radioestesia - is a hypothetical sensitivity to certain radiations, such as energies emitted by living beings and elements of nature;
- Psychometry - Ability to read impressions and memories by contact with objects.
- Retrocognition - A spontaneous or induced parapsychic phenomenon in which the individual would spontaneously remember places, events or persons relating to past experiences, whether they are lived or periods between lives.
Despite Rhine's efforts to take precautions in response to criticism of his methods, he was unable to find a definitive answer to the high score obtained.
His parapsychology experiments at Duke evoked criticism from academics and others who challenged - and continue to challenge - the concepts and evidence of ESP.
Countless other psychological departments tried to repeat Rhine's experiments without success.
W.S. Cox in 1936, for example, at Princeton University produced 25,064 essays with 132 subjects in an ESP Card experiment, concluding:
"There is no evidence of extra-sensory perception either in the 'common man' of the survey group or in any particular individual in that group. The discrepancy between these results and those obtained by Rhine is due both to uncontrollable factors in the experimental procedure As for the difference between subjects."
In 1938, psychologist Joseph Jastrow wrote that much of the extra-sensory perception evidence collected by Rhine and other parapsychologists was anecdotal, biased, dubious, and the result of:
"... faulty remarks and familiar human fragilities".Four other psychological departments failed to replicate Rhine's results.
Gradually the experiences of Rhine were being discredited by the distrust that the experimenter could unconsciously pass on tips to the experienced one who, in turn, be able to see and hear subtle clues that could lead him to the correct answer.
Parapsychology has been criticized for being unable to provide convincing evidence for the existence of psychic phenomena after more than a century of research.
Skeptics claim that there is a lack of a viable theory of the mechanism behind ESP, and that there are historical cases where flaws have been discovered in the experimental design of parapsychological studies.
The scientific community rejects ESP because of the lack of a database, the lack of a theory explaining ESP, the lack of experimental techniques that can yield positive results reliably, considering ESP as non-existent.
Object of study of pseudoscience parapsychology, the current scientific consensus does not support the claims of this and other supposed paranormal phenomena ...
Taking the scientific consensus not to see extra-sensory perception as a real phenomenon.
Even so, in the 1960s, new parapsychologists emerged, increasingly interested in the cognitive components of ESP, in the subjective experiences involved, in the taking of ESP responses and in the role of ESP in psychological life.
This call for experimental procedures that were not limited favored the methodology of forced choice in Reno, and led to include new experiences with telepathy, dreams and the experiments Ganzfeld (a procedure of mild sensory deprivation).
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